2.10 Groundwater salinisation (Sonja Martens & Knut Wichmann)
Groundwater salinisation: About one-third of total freshwater consumption in the world depends on groundwater resources. Low cost use of groundwater is only feasible when the salt concentration is below certain limits. Therefore a reliable monitoring network is essential for detecting and monitoring saltwater movement in aquifers and improving the understanding of the processes which control groundwater salinisation. Potential sources for groundwater salinisation such are seawater intrusion, leaching of salt deposits and upcoming of deep natural saline water. These processes could be initiated or facilitated by human activities, such as heavy pumpage of fresh groundwater. Groundwater salinisation may occur as a local or regional problem. Different case studies show that it represents an essential issue for sustainable water management in many regions all over the world.