Greening (more green) and browning (more brown), what are the trends?: Changes in vegetation on the earth‘s surface have been observed for the last decades. There are reports that some regions are becoming greener. The reasons given for this are the extended vegetation period, nitrogen input and CO2 fertilization, among others. In other regions, however, the vegetation may turn brown maybe as a result of water stress. In this article, this development is examined in more detail using case studies from the Mediterranean region and compared and evaluated with global results from several others investigations.