The tundra in transition: Nowhere on earth the warming due to the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases is as high as in the Arctic. In addition to the melting of ice and snow and the warming of the Arctic Ocean, this too has an impact on the vegetation cover of the tundra. The tundra ecosystem is relatively young and only formed after the last ice age.
It is currently undergoing major changes under the influence of human-induced climate change. The most visible change is the spread of shrub vegetation at the expense of the predominant grasses, mosses and lichens. This shrubification of the tundra is associated with complex feedbacks on regional and even global climate. By the end of the 21st century, this process will intensify.