The influence of globalization and climate change on the Mosquito Fauna of Germany – Mosquitoes as indicators of climate change:
Since the beginning of the 20th century the mosquitoes of Germany have been intensively studied due to their importance as nuisance and vector species. In his classic work »Die Culiciden Deutschlands« Mohrig (1969) describes 46 mosquito species for Germany.
Here the influence of temperature and precipitation on the development of mosquitoes is described. Since 1995 in the course of our research six new mosquito species are described amongst them are two species that often occur as indiginous species in the Mediterranean area due to their preference for warmer climates. Aedes albopictus is a subtropical or tropical species, which has its origin in South-East Asia.
Its occurrence in Germany might be favored by increasing temperatures. Aedes albopictus and Ae. j. japonicus have been introduced to Germany in the context of globalization with trade goods (used tires) and as »blind passenger« in vehicles. Ae. j. japonicus has quickly spread and occurs nowadays in most parts of Baden-Württemberg, but also in Rhineland-Palatinate, North Rhine Westfalia and Lower Saxony. This species is now established in Germany.
The rapid spread of Ae. albopictus and Ae. j. japonicus , and the related risk of transmission of human pathogens, especially of arboviruses, increased the awareness of scientists as well as health authorities to investigate the occurrence of exotic mosquitoes and to curb their further spread by immediate control measures.