Urban climate: introduction, characteristics, estimation of urban effects:
The paper highlights the characteristics of the urban climate and deals in particular with the actinic, thermal and hydrological differences that
arise between a city and its surroundings. Using the energy balance as an example, the special influence of urban areas on the atmospheric boundary layer is explained.
Based on the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon the qualitative differences between a city and its rural environment in thermal terms are shown. In order to be able to demonstrate urban climatic characteristics, various possibilities are described and discussed for separating the urban climatic effect from that of the surrounding area. In an outlook, the problems arising from global climate change are addressed and countermeasures at the local level are named.