The limits of habitability in hot regions – The example of the Middle East:
Already today, the Middle East is characterized by hot temperatures and low precipitation during the summer months. It is especially the lack of water resources that makes many parts of the region inhabitable. Climate change will cause an increase in average temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in many locations.
The atmospheric uptake of water, e.g. over the Persian Gulf, paired with more extreme temperatures will lead to humidity conditions which would further constrain habitability. An increase in heat-related morbidity and mortality cases due to these future climate conditions is therefore very likely.
A higher demand for water resources, but lower availability will cause a more severe scarcity of the resource. The rapid population growth and the urbanization are causing further pressure on water and land resources. By the end of the century, the region, especially along the Gulf coast, will experience climate and resource conditions that likely put the survival of human kind without suitable technical measures into question.