Water saving: Measures, concepts and technologies in the urban, industrial and in the agricultural sector:
Water stress and water scarcity are measures of medium and high unmet water needs. The conditions of water stress and water scarcity exist in many parts of the world. Water deficiencies occur at the regional scale and are a result of a combination of physical and social factors: climate and hydrological conditions, population growth and level of economic development.
Several policy options for managing water stress and scarcity exist. In the past, water policy has typically focused on supply oriented strategies, now the demand side management approach gains more and more attention. These strategies consist of measures and instruments to influence or control the amount of water used. There is a large technical potential for reduction of water demand in the different sectors.
To exploit these potentials, an economic approach is necessary: Water prices have to reflect the true cost of water use and send the right signals to the customers for a more efficient use of water.