Biodiversity, ecosystem processes and ecosystem services:
Biodiversity does not exhibit any value in itself but gains an ethical and economic value through an anthropocentric focus on ecosystems and their services provided to the human society. Cultural ecosystem services commonly focus on individual charismatic species or ecological communities with a high value for esthetics or leisure.
Their economic value is high, because large amounts of money are given for the protection of these species or spent for touristic experience of these communities. The relevance of biodiversity for supporting, provisioning or regulating services remains more difficult to assess; here, it is mostly functional diversity or the presence of foundation or key species that is important.
The relation between biodiversity and ecosystem services is, thus, possibly characterized by a critical threshold of biodiversity. More important that biodiversity per se are the species composition and structure of ecological communities.of biodiversity.