Polar birds and their threat:
Humans affect, directly and indirectly, the avifauna of polar areas. Greenhousegas emissions in the industrialised states, and, increasingly in the developing world as well, influence the climate in polar regions.
The rising temperatures lead to a reduction in the number of breeding pairs of Adelie and Chinstrap penguins in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region, an effect that is mediated by changes in the availability of food (krill), and partly by increasing precipitation. In contrast, however, the same processes increase the number of breeding pairs in coastal regions of continental Antarctica. Long distance human influences on polar regions also include toxic materials.
These are able to reach polar areas via ocean or atmospheric currents or, in addition, when carried by migrating birds. Direct negative anthropogenic effects occur at many different intensities. Among these are fishing (particularly the long-line fishery), and also activities on land (station building, air traffic, and tourism).