Ocean and cryosphere and their effects on the global water budget and the climate:
The water budget of the world ocean as well as of individual oceans is explained in their essential features. The Atlantic Ocean is the main water supplier for the surrounding continents. It is shown how the difference of evaporation minus precipitation influences the salinity as an outstanding oceanic property and thus the climatic relevant process of the thermohaline circulation in the ocean.
Peculiarities of the water balance characterise the hydrographic regime of adjacent seas. During the Earth’s history variable masses of water have been bound in the cryosphere. The main characteristics of the different kinds of ice are described. Especially the climatic importance of the large ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland as well as of the sea ice is discussed. In connection with the present global warming the occurrence, area and thickness of sea ice is decreasing.