Climate adaptation as a task of urban planning:
Dangers from glaciated volcanoes – the example of Nevado del Ruiz: The 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruizranks as one of the most deadliest volcanic disasters in history, despite the relatively modest size and short duration of the eruption. Crucially, the eruption melted and eroded the mountains ice-covered slopes, leading to a devastating flow of water, mud and debris travelling more than 100 km downstream, where entire villages and towns were destroyed. The catastrophic size and reach of the disaster resulted in more than 23000 fatalities and led to significant advances in scientific understanding of glacier-volcano interactions, and improved global awareness about the phenomenon. Climate warming and further glacier retreat will eventually reduce the likelihood and magnitude of a similar event occurring again on Nevado del Ruiz and elsewhere, but some dangers will persist and new problems need to be anticipated.